DNB has used the FOCUS! methodology since 2012. This involves continuously updating the risk profile of financial institutions. These risk profiles are periodically benchmarked, and the results are used by DNB to plan risk-identifying and risk-mitigating measures.
In essence, the FOCUS! methodology is identical for the supervision of banks, insurers and pension funds, but obviously there are differences in how it is implemented since some types of risk apply specifically to a given sector, such as underwriting risks.
Risk identification and risk analysis
DNB makes a risk profile for each institution based, for example, on off-site analysis and on-site examinations. Off-site analysis is carried out by assessing the statutory reporting forms, surveys and other information. On-site examinations deal with specific subjects or themes that may affect an entire sector.
If DNB identifies high risks, it initiates a mitigation procedure. This may take various forms, such as an in-depth investigation to establish the underlying causes or interviews with management and/or key officers.
If it transpires that an institution’s risk mitigation measures are insufficiently effective and that its risk profile therefore remains too high, DNB may initiate enforcement. This can be done in various ways, including the issuing of a direction or the imposition of a fine.
Supervisory approach and Solvency II
The Solvency II Directive has entered into force on 1 January 2016 and also imposes requirements on the supervisory approach taken by national supervisory authorities. In this context, DNB applies the EIOPA guidelines on the supervisory review process in its supervisory approach.